Ensuring Assembly Correctness in the Automotive Industry

Coherix Robust3D is a high-speed, in-line, error-proofing solution designed and built to provide 100% error-proof assemblies for complex products in the automotive, aerospace, and other industries. Robust 3D uses cutting-edge Tru3D™ sensors coupled with advanced complex algorithms and i-Cite user-friendly software to catch every failure in the assembly line process.

In 2017, Coherix partnered with Integro Technologies to ensure smooth integration of Robust3D in assembly lines, relying on Integro’s industry-leading machine vision integration expertise in a wide customer base including the automotive, aerospace, electronics, and other industries. The compact and versatile Robust3D has proven itself in a wide variety of in-line error-proofing applications.

Robust3D and the “As-Built” Model

The key to high reliability in Robust3D is its ability to generate a 3D “as-built” model of each assembly, to which the various inspection criteria are applied. This allows Robust3D to catch every mode of failure, as well as to provide an upstream diagnosis on the assembly line to quickly determine the origin of any failure with full part traceability. Over one year’s worth of 3D data can be archived. Robust3D excels in ensuring assembly correctness in manufacturing processes which are particularly error-prone. Below we’ll take a closer look at some specific Robust3D applications.

Piston Assemblies

Robust3dPiston assembly botches can cause catastrophic engine failure downstream, and there are 10 failure modes which must be caught to prevent such a production disaster. Inspection with Robust3D uses millions of data points in the 3D piston as-built model to detect these typical piston assembly failure modes including:

  1. Missing cir-clip
  2. Double cir-clips
  3. Cir-clip clocking wrong
  4. Cir-clip improperly set or seated
  5. Piston orientation wrong
  6. Pin-to-piston height
  7. Piston variant wrong
  8. Pin variant wrong
  9. Piston land width
  10. Missing piston ring

Robust3D Volume Measurement Solution

Today’s automotive industry faces tough challenges from two sides. Government regulators demand lower emissions while at the same time consumers are constantly pushing for optimized fuel efficiency. Automotive manufacturers responded with variations in piston bowl volume for diesel engines, and combustion chamber volume for gasoline engines, to achieve reduced emissions and desired fuel efficiency.

Both require precise volume measurement and process control to be effective. The traditional old-fashioned fluid-based measurement technique is slow, unrepeatable, and requires tedious cleanup which makes it incompatible with modern in-line manufacturing speeds.

Robust3D volume measurement is the solution, using 3D visualization for non-contact measurement at in-line speed while providing full 3D traceability for optimized process control.

Robust3D Valve Assembly Solution

Valve keepers have proven difficult to error-proof. These critical parts lock the valve stem in the proper position in the valve assembly. If a missing or mis-seated valve keeper isn’t caught, again, catastrophic engine failure is the downstream result.

Current manual or laser line profiler inspection techniques are rendered unreliable given the random nature of these types of failures. The Robust3D Valve Assembly Solution uses the Tru3D Smart Sensor to detect missing or improperly seated valve keepers with a 3D generated math model, ensuring proper installation and placement.

Robust3D For Rolling Finger Follower Assemblies (RFF)

The RFF is the critical component in an engine which transfers the camshaft rotary movement to the valve stem’s up and down motion. Failure occurs because the RFF usually sits freely without constraint between the hydraulic lash adjuster and the valve stem until the camshaft is installed. This can lead to 4 modes of failure, all of which Robust3D can be relied upon to catch before they cause catastrophic engine failure downstream including:

  • Wrong RFF type
  • RFF Rotated 180 degree
  • RFF Missing
  • Incorrect Angle of RFF (RFF not on Valve stem, or Valve stem riding on RFF gate)

Robust3D for RFF uses the Tru3D Smart Sensor mounted on a robot, using its millions of data points generated to identify the real 3D geometry of the RFF. It contains pass-through defects and reports and archives all failures for traceability.

Coherix and Integro Technologies

Coherix recognizes Integro Technologies as the official integrator of Robust3D machine vision solutions as well as the Predator3D adhesive and sealant bead inspection solution, in partnership with Yamaha Robotics. Integro has more than 2,000 installations with over 700 clients worldwide. We offer turnkey solutions, service, and support for advanced machine vision technologies in a wide range of industries so don’t hesitate to contact us.


Download the Robust3D overview here.


View machine vision inspection systems from Integro here or on YouTube.

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